Madrid
Spain
40.47 ° N
3.55 ° W
1909 ft
Warm temperate thorn steppe
BSk Cold semi-arid climate
+
DOak Temperate oceanic climate with hot summer with cool winter
Traditional Koppen classification: BSk (Cold semi-arid climate)

Official definition:
  • B – 70 % or more of the total annual rainfall is during the summer half of the year and r (r = average total annual precipitation in mm) is less than 20t + 280 (t = average annual temperature in °C), or 70 % or more of total annual precipitation is during the winter half of the year and r is less than 20t, or no half of the year has less than 70 % of total annual rainfall and r less than 20t + 140. Summer half of the year in the Northern hemisphere is from April to September, on the Southern hemisphere from October to March.
  • S – r is less than the upper limit of B type classification parameter
  • k - t is less than 18 °C

Cold semi-arid climate is most commonly found in the temperate zone inland, relatively far from the ocean. Although the summers are warm, they are substantially colder than in the case of the hot semi-arid climate type (BSh). The difference can be seen particularly during the winter, when temperatures can drop quite low. The daily temperature amplitude is quite high and the differences between day and night can be more than 20 °C.

Regions with this type of climate, which are at higher altitudes tend to have drier winters and wetter summers, while for areas at lower elevation, it is the opposite – drier summers and wetter winters.

Most often one can see this climate type in Asia and North America, but it also includes for example some regions in Spain, parts of South America, Southern Australia and New Zealand.


Modern Trewartha classification: DOak (Temperate oceanic climate with hot summer with cool winter)

In the Trewartha classification, the category D is like in the Koppen classification, assigned to regions in the temperate zone. The criterion for this type of climate is four to seven months with average temperature of more than 10 °C. In general it is further subdivided into two subtypes: oceanic and continental. These differ in their average temperature of the coldest month.

Temperate climate is characterized by four distinct seasons and there are substantial differences between the temperatures in the summer and in the winter, but the absolute values are not so extreme and the change is gradual.

In case of the oceanic type, winter is milder than that of the continental type and the temperature of the coldest month usually above 0 °C. The weather conditions are to a large extent influenced by the nearby ocean, which causes smaller temperature variation between the individual seasons. Typical is Western wind and so we often find this type of climate on Western coasts of continents, such as for example in Western Europe or Western coast of the U.S., in latitudes between 40 and 60 ° in America and 40 and 65 ° in Europe. These regions tend to be densely inhabited.

  • hot summer: warmest month with average temperature between 23 and 28 °C
  • cool winter: coldest month with average temperature between 0 and 10 °C

Summary

57 °F
44 / 69

16.3 in
84 days

62 %

7 h 58 min/day


Temperature
+

Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Min Temperature(°F) 32.034.037.039.046.054.059.059.054.046.037.034.0 44.0
Avg Temperature(°F) 42.045.049.053.060.069.076.075.069.058.048.043.0 57.0
Max Temperature (°F) 50.052.061.066.073.082.091.088.081.068.057.052.0 69.0
Range 18.018.024.027.027.028.032.029.027.022.020.018.0 25.0


Max month Min month Annual range
Min Temperature Jul, Aug Jan 27.0°F
Avg Temperature Jul Jan 34.0°F
Max Temperature Jul Jan 41.0°F
Temperature range Jul Jan, Feb, Dec 59.0°F
Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Min Temperature(°F)
Avg Temperature(°F)
Max Temperature(°F)


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range
Min Temperature 46.0 37.0 40.67 9.0 59.0 54.0 57.33 5.0 54.0 37.0 45.67 17.0 34.0 32.0 33.33 2.0
Avg Temperature 60.0 49.0 54.00 11.0 76.0 69.0 73.33 7.0 69.0 48.0 58.33 21.0 45.0 42.0 43.33 3.0
Max Temperature 73.0 61.0 66.67 12.0 91.0 82.0 87.00 9.0 81.0 57.0 68.67 24.0 52.0 50.0 51.33 2.0

Temperature
+

Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Avg Temperature (°F) 42.045.049.053.060.069.076.075.069.058.048.043.0 57.0


Max month Min month Annual range
Avg Temperature Jul Jan 34.0°F
Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Avg Temperature (°F)


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range
Avg Temperature 60.0 49.0 54.00 11.0 76.0 69.0 73.33 7.0 69.0 48.0 58.33 21.0 45.0 42.0 43.33 3.0


Humidity
+

Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Avg Humidity (%) 77.069.065.058.057.051.042.044.056.068.075.079.0 57.0


Max month Min month Annual range
Avg Humidity Dec Jul 37.0%
Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Avg Humidity (%)


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range
Avg Humidity 65.0 57.0 60.00 8.0 51.0 42.0 45.67 9.0 75.0 56.0 66.33 19.0 79.0 69.0 75.00 10.0


Precipitation
+

Month Monthly average Annual total
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Average monthly precipitation (in) 1.71.81.21.81.51.00.40.41.11.52.31.7 1.4 16.3
Wetdays 7610996236899 7 84
Wetdays ratio (%) 22.6
7,24
21.4
6,22
32.3
10,21
30.0
9,21
29.0
9,22
20.0
6,24
6.5
2,29
9.7
3,28
20.0
6,24
25.8
8,23
30.0
9,21
29.0
9,22
23.0
23.0137,76.9863


Max month Min month Max Season Min Season Annual range
Average monthly precipitation Nov Jul, Aug Winter Summer 2.0in
Wetdays Mar Jul Autumn Summer 8
Month
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Average monthly precipitation (in)
Wetdays / month


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total
Average monthly precipitation (in) 1.8 1.2 0.6 4.5 1.0 0.4 0.7 1.7 2.3 1.1 1.2 4.9 1.8 1.7 0.1 5.2
Wetdays 10 9 1 28 6 2 4 11 58 6 52 112 9 6 3 22

Precipitation
+

Month Monthly average Annual total
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Average monthly precipitation (in) 1.71.81.21.81.51.00.40.41.11.52.31.7 1.4 16.3


Max month Min month Max Season Min Season Annual range
Average monthly precipitation Nov Jul, Aug Winter Summer 2.0in
Month
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Average monthly precipitation (in)


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total
Average monthly precipitation (in) 1.8 1.2 0.6 4.5 1.0 0.4 0.7 1.7 2.3 1.1 1.2 4.9 1.8 1.7 0.1 5.2


Sunlight / Day length
+

Max day length Min day length Sunlight/Day length
Jan 303 min
5 h 3 min
579 min
9 h 39 min
579,861
606 min
10 h 6 min
(31.1.)
606,834
560 min
9 h 20 min
(1.1.)
560,880
52.3 %
303,276
Feb 382 min
6 h 22 min
642 min
10 h 42 min
642,798
677 min
11 h 17 min
(29.2.)
677,763
608 min
10 h 8 min
(1.2.)
608,832
59.5 %
382,260
Mar 418 min
6 h 58 min
720 min
12 h 0 min
720,720
760 min
12 h 40 min
(31.3.)
760,680
680 min
11 h 20 min
(1.3.)
680,760
58.1 %
418,302
Apr 514 min
8 h 34 min
800 min
13 h 20 min
800,640
836 min
13 h 56 min
(30.4.)
836,604
763 min
12 h 43 min
(1.4.)
763,677
64.2 %
514,286
May 563 min
9 h 23 min
867 min
14 h 27 min
867,573
891 min
14 h 51 min
(31.5.)
891,549
838 min
13 h 58 min
(1.5.)
838,602
64.9 %
563,304
Jun 668 min
11 h 8 min
900 min
15 h 0 min
900,540
903 min
15 h 3 min
(19.6.)
903,537
893 min
14 h 53 min
(1.6.)
893,547
74.2 %
668,232
Jul 749 min
12 h 29 min
881 min
14 h 41 min
881,559
899 min
14 h 59 min
(1.7.)
899,541
857 min
14 h 17 min
(31.7.)
857,583
85.0 %
749,132
Aug 681 min
11 h 21 min
821 min
13 h 41 min
821,619
855 min
14 h 15 min
(1.8.)
855,585
784 min
13 h 4 min
(31.8.)
784,656
83.0 %
681,140
Sep 514 min
8 h 34 min
744 min
12 h 24 min
744,696
782 min
13 h 2 min
(1.9.)
782,658
705 min
11 h 45 min
(30.9.)
705,735
69.1 %
514,230
Oct 394 min
6 h 34 min
664 min
11 h 4 min
664,776
703 min
11 h 43 min
(1.10.)
703,737
626 min
10 h 26 min
(31.10.)
626,814
59.4 %
394,270
Nov 282 min
4 h 42 min
594 min
9 h 54 min
594,846
624 min
10 h 24 min
(1.11.)
624,816
569 min
9 h 29 min
(30.11.)
569,871
47.5 %
282,312
Dec 259 min
4 h 19 min
559 min
9 h 19 min
559,881
568 min
9 h 28 min
(1.12.)
568,872
556 min
9 h 16 min
(20.12.)
556,884
46.3 %
259,300
Year 517 min
8 h 37 min
731 min
12 h 11 min
731,709
903 min
15 h 3 min
(19. 6.)
903,537
556 min
9 h 16 min
(20. 12.)
556,884
70.7 %
517,214



Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Sunlight/day Max Min Average Sunlight/day Max Min Average Sunlight/day Max Min Average Sunlight/day
(min/day) 563 418 498 62.6%
498,298
749 668 699 80.7%
699,168
514 282 397 59.5%
397,270
382 259 315 53.1%
315,278
Day length 891 680 796 903 784 867 782 569 667 677 556 592

Day length
+

Max day length Min day length
Jan 579 min
9 h 39 min
579,861
606 min
10 h 6 min
(Array.1.)
606,834
560 min
9 h 20 min
(1.1.)
560,880
Feb 642 min
10 h 42 min
642,798
677 min
11 h 17 min
(Array.2.)
677,763
608 min
10 h 8 min
(1.2.)
608,832
Mar 720 min
12 h 0 min
720,720
760 min
12 h 40 min
(Array.3.)
760,680
680 min
11 h 20 min
(1.3.)
680,760
Apr 800 min
13 h 20 min
800,640
836 min
13 h 56 min
(Array.4.)
836,604
763 min
12 h 43 min
(1.4.)
763,677
May 867 min
14 h 27 min
867,573
891 min
14 h 51 min
(Array.5.)
891,549
838 min
13 h 58 min
(1.5.)
838,602
Jun 900 min
15 h 0 min
900,540
903 min
15 h 3 min
(Array.6.)
903,537
893 min
14 h 53 min
(1.6.)
893,547
Jul 881 min
14 h 41 min
881,559
899 min
14 h 59 min
(Array.7.)
899,541
857 min
14 h 17 min
(31.7.)
857,583
Aug 821 min
13 h 41 min
821,619
855 min
14 h 15 min
(Array.8.)
855,585
784 min
13 h 4 min
(31.8.)
784,656
Sep 744 min
12 h 24 min
744,696
782 min
13 h 2 min
(Array.9.)
782,658
705 min
11 h 45 min
(30.9.)
705,735
Oct 664 min
11 h 4 min
664,776
703 min
11 h 43 min
(Array.10.)
703,737
626 min
10 h 26 min
(31.10.)
626,814
Nov 594 min
9 h 54 min
594,846
624 min
10 h 24 min
(Array.11.)
624,816
569 min
9 h 29 min
(30.11.)
569,871
Dec 559 min
9 h 19 min
559,881
568 min
9 h 28 min
(Array.12.)
568,872
556 min
9 h 16 min
(20.12.)
556,884
Year 731 min
12 h 11 min
731,709
903 min
15 h 3 min
(20. 6.)
903,537
556 min
9 h 16 min
(21. 12.)
556,884



Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Max Min Average Max Min Average Max Min Average
Day length 891 680 796 903 784 867 782 569 667 677 556 592

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