Helsinki
Finland
60.17 ° N
24.62 ° E
167 ft
Boreal wet forest
Dfb Mild continental humid climate
+
DClo Temperate continental climate with mild summer with cold winter
Traditional Koppen classification: Dfb (Mild continental humid climate)

Official definition:
  • D – temperature of the warmest month is higher than or equal to 10 °C and temperature of the coldest month is less than or equal to -3 °C.
  • f – precipitation is relatively evenly distributed throughout the year.
  • b - temperature of each of the four warmest months is higher than 10°C, but the temperature of the warmest month is less than 22 °C

In general it can be said that the D climate type can only be found in the Northern Hemisphere, northwards from the C climate zones, closer to the North Pole. The average temperature during the warmest month is higher than or equal to 10 °C, but in the winter the coldest month has an average value of less than -3 °C. In the winter it often snows and it tends to be quite windy and cold due to the polar and Arctic air masses.

Just like the Dfa type, precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year. In comparison to the Dfa however, summer is slightly colder and the warmest month does not have average temperature above 22 °C. The highest summer temperatures are still usually between 30 and 35 °C, in the winter it drops to -10 to -35 °C.

Precipitation is higher in the summer, but the difference is not very large. Most of the precipitation in the summer occurs during thunderstorms and so quite often there are longer dry periods between them.

This Dfb category includes for example parts of Northern U.S. (for example Buffalo or Calgary), Southern part of Canada (for example Ottawa), Southern part of Russia (for example Vladivostok), Western part of Central Europe or Southern part of Scandinavia (for example Helsinki).


Modern Trewartha classification: DClo (Temperate continental climate with mild summer with cold winter)

In the Trewartha classification, the category D is like in the Koppen classification, assigned to regions in the temperate zone. The criterion for this type of climate is four to seven months with average temperature of more than 10 °C. In general it is further subdivided into two subtypes: oceanic and continental. These differ in their average temperature of the coldest month.

Temperate climate is characterized by four distinct seasons and there are substantial differences between the temperatures in the summer and in the winter, but the absolute values are not so extreme and the change is gradual.

The continental subtype is typical for regions located more inland and this also means the temperature variation is larger than that in case of the oceanic subtype. The coldest month has an average temperature of less than 0 °C. Summers are usually warmer, while winters colder with snow being quite common.

Continental D climate type can be found for example in parts of Northeast U.S., Central and Eastern Europe and usually these areas are quite densely inhabited.

  • mild summer: warmest month with average temperature between 10 and 18 °C
  • cold winter: coldest month with average temperature between -10 and 0 °C

Summary

41 °F
35 / 47

27.1 in
191 days

80 %

4 h 56 min/day


Temperature
+

Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Min Temperature(°F) 16.016.019.030.039.048.055.054.046.037.030.023.0 35.0
Avg Temperature(°F) 21.020.026.037.048.057.064.061.053.042.034.027.0 41.0
Max Temperature (°F) 27.025.032.043.057.066.072.068.059.046.037.030.0 47.0
Range 11.09.013.013.018.018.017.014.013.09.07.07.0 12.0


Max month Min month Annual range
Min Temperature Jul Jan, Feb 39.0°F
Avg Temperature Jul Feb 44.0°F
Max Temperature Jul Feb 47.0°F
Temperature range May, Jun Nov, Dec 56.0°F
Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Min Temperature(°F)
Avg Temperature(°F)
Max Temperature(°F)


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range
Min Temperature 39.0 19.0 29.33 20.0 55.0 48.0 52.33 7.0 46.0 30.0 37.67 16.0 23.0 16.0 18.33 7.0
Avg Temperature 48.0 26.0 37.00 22.0 64.0 57.0 60.67 7.0 53.0 34.0 43.00 19.0 27.0 20.0 22.67 7.0
Max Temperature 57.0 32.0 44.00 25.0 72.0 66.0 68.67 6.0 59.0 37.0 47.33 22.0 30.0 25.0 27.33 5.0

Temperature
+

Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Avg Temperature (°F) 21.020.026.037.048.057.064.061.053.042.034.027.0 41.0


Max month Min month Annual range
Avg Temperature Jul Feb 44.0°F
Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Avg Temperature (°F)


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range
Avg Temperature 48.0 26.0 37.00 22.0 64.0 57.0 60.67 7.0 53.0 34.0 43.00 19.0 27.0 20.0 22.67 7.0


Humidity
+

Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Avg Humidity (%) 89.088.078.075.064.064.070.077.085.089.089.091.0 41.0


Max month Min month Annual range
Avg Humidity Dec May, Jun 27.0%
Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Avg Humidity (%)


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range
Avg Humidity 78.0 64.0 72.33 14.0 77.0 64.0 70.33 13.0 89.0 85.0 87.67 4.0 91.0 88.0 89.33 3.0


Precipitation
+

Month Monthly average Annual total
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Average monthly precipitation (in) 2.21.71.41.71.62.02.72.82.82.92.72.6 2.3 27.1
Wetdays 201814131213141515181920 16 191
Wetdays ratio (%) 64.5
20,11
64.3
18,10
45.2
14,17
43.3
13,17
38.7
12,19
43.3
13,17
45.2
14,17
48.4
15,16
50.0
15,15
58.1
18,13
63.3
19,11
64.5
20,11
52.3
52.3288,47.6712


Max month Min month Max Season Min Season Annual range
Average monthly precipitation Oct Mar Autumn Spring 1.5in
Wetdays Jan, Dec May Autumn Spring 8
Month
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Average monthly precipitation (in)
Wetdays / month


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total
Average monthly precipitation (in) 1.7 1.4 0.3 4.8 2.8 2.0 0.8 7.5 2.9 2.7 0.2 8.4 2.6 1.7 1.0 6.5
Wetdays 14 12 2 39 15 13 2 42 42 15 27 91 20 18 2 58

Precipitation
+

Month Monthly average Annual total
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Average monthly precipitation (in) 2.21.71.41.71.62.02.72.82.82.92.72.6 2.3 27.1


Max month Min month Max Season Min Season Annual range
Average monthly precipitation Oct Mar Autumn Spring 1.5in
Month
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Average monthly precipitation (in)


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total
Average monthly precipitation (in) 1.7 1.4 0.3 4.8 2.8 2.0 0.8 7.5 2.9 2.7 0.2 8.4 2.6 1.7 1.0 6.5


Sunlight / Day length
+

Max day length Min day length Sunlight/Day length
Jan 65 min
1 h 5 min
406 min
6 h 46 min
406,1034
469 min
7 h 49 min
(31.1.)
469,971
357 min
5 h 57 min
(1.1.)
357,1083
16.0 %
65,341
Feb 133 min
2 h 13 min
548 min
9 h 8 min
548,892
623 min
10 h 23 min
(29.2.)
623,817
474 min
7 h 54 min
(1.2.)
474,966
24.3 %
133,415
Mar 261 min
4 h 21 min
712 min
11 h 52 min
712,728
794 min
13 h 14 min
(31.3.)
794,646
629 min
10 h 29 min
(1.3.)
629,811
36.7 %
261,451
Apr 368 min
6 h 8 min
879 min
14 h 39 min
879,561
957 min
15 h 57 min
(30.4.)
957,483
800 min
13 h 20 min
(1.4.)
800,640
41.9 %
368,511
May 522 min
8 h 42 min
1034 min
17 h 14 min
1034,406
1098 min
18 h 18 min
(31.5.)
1098,342
962 min
16 h 2 min
(1.5.)
962,478
50.5 %
522,512
Jun 588 min
9 h 48 min
1125 min
18 h 45 min
1125,315
1134 min
18 h 54 min
(20.6.)
1134,306
1101 min
18 h 21 min
(1.6.)
1101,339
52.3 %
588,537
Jul 570 min
9 h 30 min
1076 min
17 h 56 min
1076,364
1124 min
18 h 44 min
(1.7.)
1124,316
1014 min
16 h 54 min
(31.7.)
1014,426
53.0 %
570,506
Aug 485 min
8 h 5 min
932 min
15 h 32 min
932,508
1009 min
16 h 49 min
(1.8.)
1009,431
852 min
14 h 12 min
(31.8.)
852,588
52.1 %
485,447
Sep 304 min
5 h 4 min
768 min
12 h 48 min
768,672
847 min
14 h 7 min
(1.9.)
847,593
690 min
11 h 30 min
(30.9.)
690,750
39.6 %
304,464
Oct 147 min
2 h 27 min
603 min
10 h 3 min
603,837
684 min
11 h 24 min
(1.10.)
684,756
523 min
8 h 43 min
(31.10.)
523,917
24.4 %
147,456
Nov 60 min
1 h 0 min
448 min
7 h 28 min
448,992
518 min
8 h 38 min
(1.11.)
518,922
386 min
6 h 26 min
(30.11.)
386,1054
13.4 %
60,388
Dec 34 min
0 h 34 min
357 min
5 h 57 min
357,1083
382 min
6 h 22 min
(1.12.)
382,1058
347 min
5 h 47 min
(21.12.)
347,1093
9.5 %
34,323
Year 319 min
5 h 19 min
741 min
12 h 21 min
741,699
1134 min
18 h 54 min
(20. 6.)
1134,306
347 min
5 h 47 min
(21. 12.)
347,1093
43.1 %
319,421



Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Sunlight/day Max Min Average Sunlight/day Max Min Average Sunlight/day Max Min Average Sunlight/day
(min/day) 522 261 384 43.9%
384,491
588 485 548 52.5%
548,496
304 60 170 28.1%
170,436
133 34 77 17.8%
77,357
Day length 1098 629 875 1134 852 1043 847 386 606 623 347 434

Day length
+

Max day length Min day length
Jan 406 min
6 h 46 min
406,1034
469 min
7 h 49 min
(Array.1.)
469,971
357 min
5 h 57 min
(1.1.)
357,1083
Feb 548 min
9 h 8 min
548,892
623 min
10 h 23 min
(Array.2.)
623,817
474 min
7 h 54 min
(1.2.)
474,966
Mar 712 min
11 h 52 min
712,728
794 min
13 h 14 min
(Array.3.)
794,646
629 min
10 h 29 min
(1.3.)
629,811
Apr 879 min
14 h 39 min
879,561
957 min
15 h 57 min
(Array.4.)
957,483
800 min
13 h 20 min
(1.4.)
800,640
May 1034 min
17 h 14 min
1034,406
1098 min
18 h 18 min
(Array.5.)
1098,342
962 min
16 h 2 min
(1.5.)
962,478
Jun 1125 min
18 h 45 min
1125,315
1134 min
18 h 54 min
(Array.6.)
1134,306
1101 min
18 h 21 min
(1.6.)
1101,339
Jul 1076 min
17 h 56 min
1076,364
1124 min
18 h 44 min
(Array.7.)
1124,316
1014 min
16 h 54 min
(31.7.)
1014,426
Aug 932 min
15 h 32 min
932,508
1009 min
16 h 49 min
(Array.8.)
1009,431
852 min
14 h 12 min
(31.8.)
852,588
Sep 768 min
12 h 48 min
768,672
847 min
14 h 7 min
(Array.9.)
847,593
690 min
11 h 30 min
(30.9.)
690,750
Oct 603 min
10 h 3 min
603,837
684 min
11 h 24 min
(Array.10.)
684,756
523 min
8 h 43 min
(31.10.)
523,917
Nov 448 min
7 h 28 min
448,992
518 min
8 h 38 min
(Array.11.)
518,922
386 min
6 h 26 min
(30.11.)
386,1054
Dec 357 min
5 h 57 min
357,1083
382 min
6 h 22 min
(Array.12.)
382,1058
347 min
5 h 47 min
(21.12.)
347,1093
Year 741 min
12 h 21 min
741,699
1134 min
18 h 54 min
(21. 6.)
1134,306
347 min
5 h 47 min
(22. 12.)
347,1093



Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Max Min Average Max Min Average Max Min Average
Day length 1098 629 875 1134 852 1043 847 386 606 623 347 434

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