Bologna
Italy
44.53 ° N
11.30 ° E
121 ft
Warm temperate dry forest
Cfa Humid subtropical climate
+
DOak Temperate oceanic climate with hot summer with cool winter
Traditional Koppen classification: Cfa (Humid subtropical climate)

Official definition:
  • C – temperature of warmest month greater than or equal to 10 °C and temperature of coldest month less than 18 °C, but higher than -3 °C
  • f – precipitation is relatively evenly distributed throughout the year and do not fulfill classification criteria for s or w type
  • a - temperature of warmest month above 22 °C

The Cfa climate type is typical for areas on the Eastern coasts of continents, mostly between 20th and 30th latitude. The average temperature of the warmest month is higher than 22 °C and the temperature throughout the year range from usually -3 to 18 °C. In the winter, however, in some cases it can be well below freezing point.

Precipitation is relatively evenly distributed during the entire year. Humidity tends to be higher during the summer half year, when the conditions resemble the humid tropical climate. The total annual rainfall can be quite variable, most commonly between 650 and 2500 mm. Thunderstorms during the summer are frequent.

Cfa climate type can be found for example in the Southeastern USA, Northern part of Argentina, Uruguay and Southern part of Brazil, Southern Japan and South of China.


Modern Trewartha classification: DOak (Temperate oceanic climate with hot summer with cool winter)

In the Trewartha classification, the category D is like in the Koppen classification, assigned to regions in the temperate zone. The criterion for this type of climate is four to seven months with average temperature of more than 10 °C. In general it is further subdivided into two subtypes: oceanic and continental. These differ in their average temperature of the coldest month.

Temperate climate is characterized by four distinct seasons and there are substantial differences between the temperatures in the summer and in the winter, but the absolute values are not so extreme and the change is gradual.

In case of the oceanic type, winter is milder than that of the continental type and the temperature of the coldest month usually above 0 °C. The weather conditions are to a large extent influenced by the nearby ocean, which causes smaller temperature variation between the individual seasons. Typical is Western wind and so we often find this type of climate on Western coasts of continents, such as for example in Western Europe or Western coast of the U.S., in latitudes between 40 and 60 ° in America and 40 and 65 ° in Europe. These regions tend to be densely inhabited.

  • hot summer: warmest month with average temperature between 23 and 28 °C
  • cool winter: coldest month with average temperature between 0 and 10 °C

Summary

56 °F
47 / 64

27.9 in

74 %


Temperature
+

Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Min Temperature(°F) 29.033.039.046.053.060.065.064.059.050.040.031.0 47.0
Avg Temperature(°F) 35.040.048.055.063.070.075.074.068.058.046.037.0 56.0
Max Temperature (°F) 41.047.056.064.073.080.086.085.078.066.052.043.0 64.0
Range 12.014.017.018.020.020.021.021.019.016.012.012.0 17.0


Max month Min month Annual range
Min Temperature Jul Jan 36.0°F
Avg Temperature Jul Jan 40.0°F
Max Temperature Jul Jan 45.0°F
Temperature range Jul, Aug Jan, Nov, Dec 57.0°F
Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Min Temperature(°F)
Avg Temperature(°F)
Max Temperature(°F)


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range
Min Temperature 53.0 39.0 46.00 14.0 65.0 60.0 63.00 5.0 59.0 40.0 49.67 19.0 33.0 29.0 31.00 4.0
Avg Temperature 63.0 48.0 55.33 15.0 75.0 70.0 73.00 5.0 68.0 46.0 57.33 22.0 40.0 35.0 37.33 5.0
Max Temperature 73.0 56.0 64.33 17.0 86.0 80.0 83.67 6.0 78.0 52.0 65.33 26.0 47.0 41.0 43.67 6.0

Temperature
+

Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Avg Temperature (°F) 35.040.048.055.063.070.075.074.068.058.046.037.0 56.0


Max month Min month Annual range
Avg Temperature Jul Jan 40.0°F
Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Avg Temperature (°F)


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range
Avg Temperature 63.0 48.0 55.33 15.0 75.0 70.0 73.00 5.0 68.0 46.0 57.33 22.0 40.0 35.0 37.33 5.0


Humidity
+

Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Avg Humidity (%) 83.078.070.071.069.068.065.066.069.076.084.084.0 56.0


Max month Min month Annual range
Avg Humidity Nov, Dec Jul 19.0%
Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Avg Humidity (%)


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range
Avg Humidity 71.0 69.0 70.00 2.0 68.0 65.0 66.33 3.0 84.0 69.0 76.33 15.0 84.0 78.0 81.67 6.0


Precipitation
+

Month Monthly average Annual total
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Average monthly precipitation (in) 1.71.82.42.62.62.11.72.32.42.83.22.4 2.3 27.9
Wetdays -9999-9999-9999-9999-9999-9999-9999-9999-9999-9999-9999-9999 -9999 -119988
Wetdays ratio (%) -32254.8
-9999,10030
-35710.7
-9999,10027
-32254.8
-9999,10030
-33330.0
-9999,10029
-32254.8
-9999,10030
-33330.0
-9999,10029
-32254.8
-9999,10030
-32254.8
-9999,10030
-33330.0
-9999,10029
-32254.8
-9999,10030
-33330.0
-9999,10029
-32254.8
-9999,10030
-32873.4
-32873.4,32973.4


Max month Min month Max Season Min Season Annual range
Average monthly precipitation Nov Jan, Jul Autumn Winter 1.5in
Wetdays 0, Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec 0, Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec Autumn Spring, Summer, Winter 0
Month
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Average monthly precipitation (in)
Wetdays / month


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total
Average monthly precipitation (in) 2.6 2.4 0.3 7.6 2.3 1.7 0.6 6.1 3.2 2.4 0.8 8.4 2.4 1.7 0.7 5.9
Wetdays -9999 -9999 0 -29997 -9999 -9999 0 -29997 58 -9999 10057 -9895 -9999 -9999 0 -29997

Precipitation
+

Month Monthly average Annual total
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Average monthly precipitation (in) 1.71.82.42.62.62.11.72.32.42.83.22.4 2.3 27.9


Max month Min month Max Season Min Season Annual range
Average monthly precipitation Nov Jan, Jul Autumn Winter 1.5in
Month
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Average monthly precipitation (in)


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total
Average monthly precipitation (in) 2.6 2.4 0.3 7.6 2.3 1.7 0.6 6.1 3.2 2.4 0.8 8.4 2.4 1.7 0.7 5.9


Sunlight / Day length
+

Max day length Min day length Sunlight/Day length
Jan -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
556 min
9 h 16 min
556,884
587 min
9 h 47 min
(31.1.)
587,853
533 min
8 h 53 min
(1.1.)
533,907
-1798.2 %
-9999,10555
Feb -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
629 min
10 h 29 min
629,811
670 min
11 h 10 min
(29.2.)
670,770
590 min
9 h 50 min
(1.2.)
590,850
-1590.8 %
-9999,10628
Mar -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
719 min
11 h 59 min
719,721
766 min
12 h 46 min
(31.3.)
766,674
673 min
11 h 13 min
(1.3.)
673,767
-1390.3 %
-9999,10718
Apr -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
812 min
13 h 32 min
812,628
853 min
14 h 13 min
(30.4.)
853,587
769 min
12 h 49 min
(1.4.)
769,671
-1231.6 %
-9999,10811
May -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
890 min
14 h 50 min
890,550
919 min
15 h 19 min
(31.5.)
919,521
856 min
14 h 16 min
(1.5.)
856,584
-1123.1 %
-9999,10889
Jun -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
929 min
15 h 29 min
929,511
932 min
15 h 32 min
(19.6.)
932,508
920 min
15 h 20 min
(1.6.)
920,520
-1076.3 %
-9999,10928
Jul -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
907 min
15 h 7 min
907,533
928 min
15 h 28 min
(1.7.)
928,512
878 min
14 h 38 min
(31.7.)
878,562
-1102.8 %
-9999,10906
Aug -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
836 min
13 h 56 min
836,604
876 min
14 h 36 min
(1.8.)
876,564
794 min
13 h 14 min
(31.8.)
794,646
-1196.2 %
-9999,10835
Sep -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
747 min
12 h 27 min
747,693
791 min
13 h 11 min
(1.9.)
791,649
702 min
11 h 42 min
(30.9.)
702,738
-1339.1 %
-9999,10746
Oct -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
654 min
10 h 54 min
654,786
699 min
11 h 39 min
(1.10.)
699,741
611 min
10 h 11 min
(31.10.)
611,829
-1528.0 %
-9999,10653
Nov -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
573 min
9 h 33 min
573,867
608 min
10 h 8 min
(1.11.)
608,832
544 min
9 h 4 min
(30.11.)
544,896
-1744.2 %
-9999,10572
Dec -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
532 min
8 h 52 min
532,908
543 min
9 h 3 min
(1.12.)
543,897
528 min
8 h 48 min
(20.12.)
528,912
-1878.7 %
-9999,10531
Year -10832 min
-181 h 28 min
732 min
12 h 12 min
732,708
932 min
15 h 32 min
(19. 6.)
932,508
528 min
8 h 48 min
(20. 12.)
528,912
-1479.4 %
-10832,11564



Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Sunlight/day Max Min Average Sunlight/day Max Min Average Sunlight/day Max Min Average Sunlight/day
(min/day) -9999 -9999 -9999 -1239.0%
-9999,10806
-9999 -9999 -9999 -1123.4%
-9999,10889
-9999 -9999 -9,999 -1519.4%
-9999,10657
-9999 -9999 -9999 -1751.0%
-9999,10570
Day length 919 673 807 932 794 890 791 544 658 670 528 571

Day length
+

Max day length Min day length
Jan 556 min
9 h 16 min
556,884
587 min
9 h 47 min
(Array.1.)
587,853
533 min
8 h 53 min
(1.1.)
533,907
Feb 629 min
10 h 29 min
629,811
670 min
11 h 10 min
(Array.2.)
670,770
590 min
9 h 50 min
(1.2.)
590,850
Mar 719 min
11 h 59 min
719,721
766 min
12 h 46 min
(Array.3.)
766,674
673 min
11 h 13 min
(1.3.)
673,767
Apr 812 min
13 h 32 min
812,628
853 min
14 h 13 min
(Array.4.)
853,587
769 min
12 h 49 min
(1.4.)
769,671
May 890 min
14 h 50 min
890,550
919 min
15 h 19 min
(Array.5.)
919,521
856 min
14 h 16 min
(1.5.)
856,584
Jun 929 min
15 h 29 min
929,511
932 min
15 h 32 min
(Array.6.)
932,508
920 min
15 h 20 min
(1.6.)
920,520
Jul 907 min
15 h 7 min
907,533
928 min
15 h 28 min
(Array.7.)
928,512
878 min
14 h 38 min
(31.7.)
878,562
Aug 836 min
13 h 56 min
836,604
876 min
14 h 36 min
(Array.8.)
876,564
794 min
13 h 14 min
(31.8.)
794,646
Sep 747 min
12 h 27 min
747,693
791 min
13 h 11 min
(Array.9.)
791,649
702 min
11 h 42 min
(30.9.)
702,738
Oct 654 min
10 h 54 min
654,786
699 min
11 h 39 min
(Array.10.)
699,741
611 min
10 h 11 min
(31.10.)
611,829
Nov 573 min
9 h 33 min
573,867
608 min
10 h 8 min
(Array.11.)
608,832
544 min
9 h 4 min
(30.11.)
544,896
Dec 532 min
8 h 52 min
532,908
543 min
9 h 3 min
(Array.12.)
543,897
528 min
8 h 48 min
(20.12.)
528,912
Year 732 min
12 h 12 min
732,708
932 min
15 h 32 min
(20. 6.)
932,508
528 min
8 h 48 min
(21. 12.)
528,912



Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Max Min Average Max Min Average Max Min Average
Day length 919 673 807 932 794 890 791 544 658 670 528 571

Units






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