Palermo
Sicily, Italy
38.12 ° N
13.32 ° E
344 ft
Csa Hot-summer Mediterranean climate
+
Csal Subtropical climate with dry summer with hot summer with mild winter
Traditional Koppen classification: Csa (Hot-summer Mediterranean climate)

Official definition:
  • C – temperature of warmest month greater than or equal to 10 °C and temperature of coldest month less than 18 °C, but higher than -3 °C
  • s – precipitation in the driest month during the summer half year is less than 30 mm and less than one third of the precipitation in the month with highest precipitation in the winter half year.
  • a - temperature of the warmest month is higher than 22 °C

Cs climate type is characterized by a dry summer and wet winter. In the case of the Csa subtype, the summer tends to be very warm. The average temperature of the warmest month is above 22 °C. The wettest month in the winter usually has three times as much precipitation than the driest month in the summer, which usually has less than 30 mm of rainfall. Summers are therefore quite dry, with relatively little cloudiness and often longer periods with no rain at all. Winters on the other hand are wet and very rarely it snows as well.

Temperatures in the summer reach very high values between 30 and 40 °C. In the winter it is very unusual for the temperatures to fall below freezing point.

The continental Mediterranean climate (Csa) is sometimes also referred to as hot Mediterranean climate. The higher temperatures are the result of the fact that the places are usually deeper inland. The Csa subtype is more common than the other Cs climates and usually represents what most people imagine under the term “Mediterranean climate”.

It can be found for example around the Mediterranean sea in Europe, in Southwest Australia, Southwestern part of South Africa, some parts in Central Asia and in Northern California. Other places also include some microregions such as the Spanish capital Madrid, Italian Rome, American Los Angeles or Perth in Australia.


Modern Trewartha classification: Csal (Subtropical climate with dry summer with hot summer with mild winter)

Subtropical in the Koppen and Trewartha classification is defined as a region, where at least eight months has an average temperature of more than 10 °C, but the coldest month has an average temperature of less than 18 °C. The individual subtypes then differ in their annual precipitation distribution. In Trewartha classification there is a condition of maximum annual precipitation of 900 mm.

In general the subtropical climate is usually found in areas polewards from the tropical zones. It can also be found inside tropical zones at places with higher altitude. Typical are for example citrus trees or palm trees.

The Cs subtype in the Trewartha classification represents a subtropical climate with dry summer, sometimes referred to as the Mediterranean climate. It is characterized by hot and dry summers and mild winters, during which most of the precipitation is observed. High pressure is the dominating factor in the summer, when precipitation is very small and if there is some, it is usually in the form of very short, but intense thunderstorms. In the winter it can sometimes snow, especially at higher altitudes, but in general the winters are mild.

This climate type is most common in western coasts of continents in the middle latitudes, for example it includes areas on the West coast of the U.S. such as California, Southern Europe or Southwest tip of Australia.

  • hot summer: warmest month with average temperature between 23 and 28 °C
  • mild winter: coldest month with average temperature between 10 and 18 °C

Summary

64 °F
56 / 72

29.2 in
113 days

69 %


Temperature
+

Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Min Temperature(°F) 43.043.048.054.057.064.068.068.066.061.055.048.0 56.0
Avg Temperature(°F) 50.051.055.061.066.073.077.077.074.068.063.055.0 64.0
Max Temperature (°F) 57.059.063.068.075.082.086.086.082.075.070.061.0 72.0
Range 14.016.015.014.018.018.018.018.016.014.015.013.0 16.0


Max month Min month Annual range
Min Temperature Jul, Aug Jan, Feb 25.0°F
Avg Temperature Jul, Aug Jan 27.0°F
Max Temperature Jul, Aug Jan 29.0°F
Temperature range May, Jun, Jul, Aug Dec 43.0°F
Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Min Temperature(°F)
Avg Temperature(°F)
Max Temperature(°F)


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range
Min Temperature 57.0 48.0 53.00 9.0 68.0 64.0 66.67 4.0 66.0 55.0 60.67 11.0 48.0 43.0 44.67 5.0
Avg Temperature 66.0 55.0 60.67 11.0 77.0 73.0 75.67 4.0 74.0 63.0 68.33 11.0 55.0 50.0 52.00 5.0
Max Temperature 75.0 63.0 68.67 12.0 86.0 82.0 84.67 4.0 82.0 70.0 75.67 12.0 61.0 57.0 59.00 4.0

Temperature
+

Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Avg Temperature (°F) 50.051.055.061.066.073.077.077.074.068.063.055.0 64.0


Max month Min month Annual range
Avg Temperature Jul, Aug Jan 27.0°F
Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Avg Temperature (°F)


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range
Avg Temperature 66.0 55.0 60.67 11.0 77.0 73.0 75.67 4.0 74.0 63.0 68.33 11.0 55.0 50.0 52.00 5.0


Humidity
+

Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Avg Humidity (%) 75.072.068.068.067.065.063.063.067.071.073.076.0 64.0


Max month Min month Annual range
Avg Humidity Dec Jul, Aug 13.0%
Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Avg Humidity (%)


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range
Avg Humidity 68.0 67.0 67.67 1.0 65.0 63.0 63.67 2.0 73.0 67.0 70.33 6.0 76.0 72.0 74.33 4.0


Precipitation
+

Month Monthly average Annual total
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Average monthly precipitation (in) 3.93.32.82.61.30.60.30.61.53.93.94.5 2.4 29.2
Wetdays 1514121174226121315 9 113
Wetdays ratio (%) 48.4
15,16
50.0
14,14
38.7
12,19
36.7
11,19
22.6
7,24
13.3
4,26
6.5
2,29
6.5
2,29
20.0
6,24
38.7
12,19
43.3
13,17
48.4
15,16
31.0
30.9589,69.0411


Max month Min month Max Season Min Season Annual range
Average monthly precipitation Dec Jul Winter Summer 4.2in
Wetdays Jan, Dec Jul, Aug Autumn Summer 13
Month
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Average monthly precipitation (in)
Wetdays / month


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total
Average monthly precipitation (in) 2.8 1.3 1.4 6.7 0.6 0.3 0.3 1.5 3.9 1.5 2.4 9.2 4.5 3.3 1.2 11.7
Wetdays 12 7 5 30 4 2 2 8 68 6 62 137 15 14 1 44

Precipitation
+

Month Monthly average Annual total
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Average monthly precipitation (in) 3.93.32.82.61.30.60.30.61.53.93.94.5 2.4 29.2


Max month Min month Max Season Min Season Annual range
Average monthly precipitation Dec Jul Winter Summer 4.2in
Month
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Average monthly precipitation (in)


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total
Average monthly precipitation (in) 2.8 1.3 1.4 6.7 0.6 0.3 0.3 1.5 3.9 1.5 2.4 9.2 4.5 3.3 1.2 11.7


Sunlight / Day length
+

Max day length Min day length Sunlight/Day length
Jan -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
591 min
9 h 51 min
591,849
616 min
10 h 16 min
(31.1.)
616,824
574 min
9 h 34 min
(1.1.)
574,866
-1690.8 %
-9999,10590
Feb -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
648 min
10 h 48 min
648,792
681 min
11 h 21 min
(29.2.)
681,759
618 min
10 h 18 min
(1.2.)
618,822
-1542.5 %
-9999,10647
Mar -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
720 min
12 h 0 min
720,720
757 min
12 h 37 min
(31.3.)
757,683
683 min
11 h 23 min
(1.3.)
683,757
-1388.2 %
-9999,10719
Apr -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
794 min
13 h 14 min
794,646
827 min
13 h 47 min
(30.4.)
827,613
760 min
12 h 40 min
(1.4.)
760,680
-1259.4 %
-9999,10793
May -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
856 min
14 h 16 min
856,584
877 min
14 h 37 min
(31.5.)
877,563
829 min
13 h 49 min
(1.5.)
829,611
-1168.7 %
-9999,10855
Jun -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
886 min
14 h 46 min
886,554
888 min
14 h 48 min
(19.6.)
888,552
879 min
14 h 39 min
(1.6.)
879,561
-1129.2 %
-9999,10885
Jul -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
868 min
14 h 28 min
868,572
885 min
14 h 45 min
(1.7.)
885,555
846 min
14 h 6 min
(31.7.)
846,594
-1151.5 %
-9999,10867
Aug -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
813 min
13 h 33 min
813,627
844 min
14 h 4 min
(1.8.)
844,596
780 min
12 h 60 min
(31.8.)
780,660
-1229.9 %
-9999,10812
Sep -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
742 min
12 h 22 min
742,698
777 min
12 h 57 min
(1.9.)
777,663
707 min
11 h 47 min
(30.9.)
707,733
-1347.2 %
-9999,10741
Oct -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
669 min
11 h 9 min
669,771
704 min
11 h 44 min
(1.10.)
704,736
634 min
10 h 34 min
(31.10.)
634,806
-1495.2 %
-9999,10668
Nov -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
605 min
10 h 5 min
605,835
632 min
10 h 32 min
(1.11.)
632,808
582 min
9 h 42 min
(30.11.)
582,858
-1653.2 %
-9999,10604
Dec -9999 min
-167 h 21 min
573 min
9 h 33 min
573,867
581 min
9 h 41 min
(1.12.)
581,859
570 min
9 h 30 min
(20.12.)
570,870
-1745.2 %
-9999,10572
Year -10832 min
-181 h 28 min
731 min
12 h 11 min
731,709
888 min
14 h 48 min
(19. 6.)
888,552
570 min
9 h 30 min
(20. 12.)
570,870
-1482.7 %
-10832,11563



Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Sunlight/day Max Min Average Sunlight/day Max Min Average Sunlight/day Max Min Average Sunlight/day
(min/day) -9999 -9999 -9999 -1265.9%
-9999,10789
-9999 -9999 -9999 -1169.1%
-9999,10854
-9999 -9999 -9,999 -1488.2%
-9999,10671
-9999 -9999 -9999 -1657.6%
-9999,10602
Day length 877 683 790 888 780 855 777 582 672 681 570 603

Day length
+

Max day length Min day length
Jan 591 min
9 h 51 min
591,849
616 min
10 h 16 min
(Array.1.)
616,824
574 min
9 h 34 min
(1.1.)
574,866
Feb 648 min
10 h 48 min
648,792
681 min
11 h 21 min
(Array.2.)
681,759
618 min
10 h 18 min
(1.2.)
618,822
Mar 720 min
12 h 0 min
720,720
757 min
12 h 37 min
(Array.3.)
757,683
683 min
11 h 23 min
(1.3.)
683,757
Apr 794 min
13 h 14 min
794,646
827 min
13 h 47 min
(Array.4.)
827,613
760 min
12 h 40 min
(1.4.)
760,680
May 856 min
14 h 16 min
856,584
877 min
14 h 37 min
(Array.5.)
877,563
829 min
13 h 49 min
(1.5.)
829,611
Jun 886 min
14 h 46 min
886,554
888 min
14 h 48 min
(Array.6.)
888,552
879 min
14 h 39 min
(1.6.)
879,561
Jul 868 min
14 h 28 min
868,572
885 min
14 h 45 min
(Array.7.)
885,555
846 min
14 h 6 min
(31.7.)
846,594
Aug 813 min
13 h 33 min
813,627
844 min
14 h 4 min
(Array.8.)
844,596
780 min
12 h 60 min
(31.8.)
780,660
Sep 742 min
12 h 22 min
742,698
777 min
12 h 57 min
(Array.9.)
777,663
707 min
11 h 47 min
(30.9.)
707,733
Oct 669 min
11 h 9 min
669,771
704 min
11 h 44 min
(Array.10.)
704,736
634 min
10 h 34 min
(31.10.)
634,806
Nov 605 min
10 h 5 min
605,835
632 min
10 h 32 min
(Array.11.)
632,808
582 min
9 h 42 min
(30.11.)
582,858
Dec 573 min
9 h 33 min
573,867
581 min
9 h 41 min
(Array.12.)
581,859
570 min
9 h 30 min
(20.12.)
570,870
Year 731 min
12 h 11 min
731,709
888 min
14 h 48 min
(20. 6.)
888,552
570 min
9 h 30 min
(21. 12.)
570,870



Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Max Min Average Max Min Average Max Min Average
Day length 877 683 790 888 780 855 777 582 672 681 570 603

Units






Units

Language