Rome
Italy
41.95 ° N
12.50 ° E
79 ft
Warm temperate moist forest
Csa Hot-summer Mediterranean climate
+
Csak Subtropical climate with dry summer with hot summer with cool winter
Traditional Koppen classification: Csa (Hot-summer Mediterranean climate)

Official definition:
  • C – temperature of warmest month greater than or equal to 10 °C and temperature of coldest month less than 18 °C, but higher than -3 °C
  • s – precipitation in the driest month during the summer half year is less than 30 mm and less than one third of the precipitation in the month with highest precipitation in the winter half year.
  • a - temperature of the warmest month is higher than 22 °C

Cs climate type is characterized by a dry summer and wet winter. In the case of the Csa subtype, the summer tends to be very warm. The average temperature of the warmest month is above 22 °C. The wettest month in the winter usually has three times as much precipitation than the driest month in the summer, which usually has less than 30 mm of rainfall. Summers are therefore quite dry, with relatively little cloudiness and often longer periods with no rain at all. Winters on the other hand are wet and very rarely it snows as well.

Temperatures in the summer reach very high values between 30 and 40 °C. In the winter it is very unusual for the temperatures to fall below freezing point.

The continental Mediterranean climate (Csa) is sometimes also referred to as hot Mediterranean climate. The higher temperatures are the result of the fact that the places are usually deeper inland. The Csa subtype is more common than the other Cs climates and usually represents what most people imagine under the term “Mediterranean climate”.

It can be found for example around the Mediterranean sea in Europe, in Southwest Australia, Southwestern part of South Africa, some parts in Central Asia and in Northern California. Other places also include some microregions such as the Spanish capital Madrid, Italian Rome, American Los Angeles or Perth in Australia.


Modern Trewartha classification: Csak (Subtropical climate with dry summer with hot summer with cool winter)

Subtropical in the Koppen and Trewartha classification is defined as a region, where at least eight months has an average temperature of more than 10 °C, but the coldest month has an average temperature of less than 18 °C. The individual subtypes then differ in their annual precipitation distribution. In Trewartha classification there is a condition of maximum annual precipitation of 900 mm.

In general the subtropical climate is usually found in areas polewards from the tropical zones. It can also be found inside tropical zones at places with higher altitude. Typical are for example citrus trees or palm trees.

The Cs subtype in the Trewartha classification represents a subtropical climate with dry summer, sometimes referred to as the Mediterranean climate. It is characterized by hot and dry summers and mild winters, during which most of the precipitation is observed. High pressure is the dominating factor in the summer, when precipitation is very small and if there is some, it is usually in the form of very short, but intense thunderstorms. In the winter it can sometimes snow, especially at higher altitudes, but in general the winters are mild.

This climate type is most common in western coasts of continents in the middle latitudes, for example it includes areas on the West coast of the U.S. such as California, Southern Europe or Southwest tip of Australia.

  • hot summer: warmest month with average temperature between 23 and 28 °C
  • cool winter: coldest month with average temperature between 0 and 10 °C

Summary

59 °F
48 / 70

33.0 in
83 days

74 %

6 h 56 min/day


Temperature
+

Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Min Temperature(°F) 35.037.040.045.051.058.062.062.058.051.043.037.0 48.0
Avg Temperature(°F) 45.047.051.056.063.070.075.075.070.062.053.046.0 59.0
Max Temperature (°F) 54.057.061.067.075.082.088.088.082.073.062.055.0 70.0
Range 19.020.021.022.024.024.026.026.024.022.019.018.0 22.0


Max month Min month Annual range
Min Temperature Jul, Aug Jan 27.0°F
Avg Temperature Jul, Aug Jan 30.0°F
Max Temperature Jul, Aug Jan 34.0°F
Temperature range Jul, Aug Dec 53.0°F
Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Min Temperature(°F)
Avg Temperature(°F)
Max Temperature(°F)


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range
Min Temperature 51.0 40.0 45.33 11.0 62.0 58.0 60.67 4.0 58.0 43.0 50.67 15.0 37.0 35.0 36.33 2.0
Avg Temperature 63.0 51.0 56.67 12.0 75.0 70.0 73.33 5.0 70.0 53.0 61.67 17.0 47.0 45.0 46.00 2.0
Max Temperature 75.0 61.0 67.67 14.0 88.0 82.0 86.00 6.0 82.0 62.0 72.33 20.0 57.0 54.0 55.33 3.0

Temperature
+

Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Avg Temperature (°F) 45.047.051.056.063.070.075.075.070.062.053.046.0 59.0


Max month Min month Annual range
Avg Temperature Jul, Aug Jan 30.0°F
Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Avg Temperature (°F)


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range
Avg Temperature 63.0 51.0 56.67 12.0 75.0 70.0 73.33 5.0 70.0 53.0 61.67 17.0 47.0 45.0 46.00 2.0


Humidity
+

Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Avg Humidity (%) 79.075.072.072.072.070.068.069.071.075.079.080.0 59.0


Max month Min month Annual range
Avg Humidity Dec Jul 12.0%
Month Average
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Avg Humidity (%)


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range Max Min Average Range
Avg Humidity 72.0 72.0 72.00 0.0 70.0 68.0 69.00 2.0 79.0 71.0 75.00 8.0 80.0 75.0 78.00 5.0


Precipitation
+

Month Monthly average Annual total
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Average monthly precipitation (in) 3.33.02.72.71.91.60.91.43.04.34.73.7 2.7 33.0
Wetdays 89986332691010 7 83
Wetdays ratio (%) 25.8
8,23
32.1
9,19
29.0
9,22
26.7
8,22
19.4
6,25
10.0
3,27
9.7
3,28
6.5
2,29
20.0
6,24
29.0
9,22
33.3
10,20
32.3
10,21
22.7
22.7397,77.2603


Max month Min month Max Season Min Season Annual range
Average monthly precipitation Nov Jul Autumn Summer 3.8in
Wetdays Nov, Dec Aug Autumn Summer 8
Month
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Average monthly precipitation (in)
Wetdays / month


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total
Average monthly precipitation (in) 2.7 1.9 0.8 7.2 1.6 0.9 0.7 3.9 4.7 3.0 1.8 11.9 3.7 3.0 0.7 9.9
Wetdays 9 6 3 23 3 2 1 8 62 6 56 121 10 8 2 27

Precipitation
+

Month Monthly average Annual total
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Average monthly precipitation (in) 3.33.02.72.71.91.60.91.43.04.34.73.7 2.7 33.0


Max month Min month Max Season Min Season Annual range
Average monthly precipitation Nov Jul Autumn Summer 3.8in
Month
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Average monthly precipitation (in)


Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total Max Min Range Total
Average monthly precipitation (in) 2.7 1.9 0.8 7.2 1.6 0.9 0.7 3.9 4.7 3.0 1.8 11.9 3.7 3.0 0.7 9.9


Sunlight / Day length
+

Max day length Min day length Sunlight/Day length
Jan 257 min
4 h 17 min
571 min
9 h 31 min
571,869
599 min
9 h 59 min
(31.1.)
599,841
551 min
9 h 11 min
(1.1.)
551,889
45.0 %
257,314
Feb 280 min
4 h 40 min
637 min
10 h 37 min
637,803
675 min
11 h 15 min
(29.2.)
675,765
602 min
10 h 2 min
(1.2.)
602,838
44.0 %
280,357
Mar 396 min
6 h 36 min
720 min
11 h 60 min
720,720
762 min
12 h 42 min
(31.3.)
762,678
677 min
11 h 17 min
(1.3.)
677,763
55.0 %
396,324
Apr 420 min
7 h 0 min
804 min
13 h 24 min
804,636
842 min
14 h 2 min
(30.4.)
842,598
765 min
12 h 45 min
(1.4.)
765,675
52.2 %
420,384
May 516 min
8 h 36 min
875 min
14 h 35 min
875,565
901 min
15 h 1 min
(31.5.)
901,539
844 min
14 h 4 min
(1.5.)
844,596
58.9 %
516,359
Jun 564 min
9 h 24 min
910 min
15 h 10 min
910,530
913 min
15 h 13 min
(20.6.)
913,527
902 min
15 h 2 min
(1.6.)
902,538
62.0 %
564,346
Jul 648 min
10 h 48 min
890 min
14 h 50 min
890,550
909 min
15 h 9 min
(1.7.)
909,531
864 min
14 h 24 min
(31.7.)
864,576
72.8 %
648,242
Aug 594 min
9 h 54 min
826 min
13 h 46 min
826,614
862 min
14 h 22 min
(1.8.)
862,578
788 min
13 h 8 min
(31.8.)
788,652
71.9 %
594,232
Sep 486 min
8 h 6 min
745 min
12 h 25 min
745,695
785 min
13 h 5 min
(1.9.)
785,655
704 min
11 h 44 min
(30.9.)
704,736
65.3 %
486,259
Oct 385 min
6 h 25 min
661 min
11 h 1 min
661,779
702 min
11 h 42 min
(1.10.)
702,738
621 min
10 h 21 min
(31.10.)
621,819
58.3 %
385,276
Nov 246 min
4 h 6 min
587 min
9 h 47 min
587,853
618 min
10 h 18 min
(1.11.)
618,822
560 min
9 h 20 min
(30.11.)
560,880
41.9 %
246,341
Dec 197 min
3 h 17 min
550 min
9 h 10 min
550,890
559 min
9 h 19 min
(1.12.)
559,881
546 min
9 h 6 min
(20.12.)
546,894
35.8 %
197,353
Year 450 min
7 h 30 min
731 min
12 h 11 min
731,709
913 min
15 h 13 min
(20. 6.)
913,527
546 min
9 h 6 min
(20. 12.)
546,894
61.6 %
450,281



Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Sunlight/day Max Min Average Sunlight/day Max Min Average Sunlight/day Max Min Average Sunlight/day
(min/day) 516 396 444 55.5%
444,356
648 564 602 68.8%
602,273
486 246 372 56.1%
372,292
280 197 245 41.8%
245,340
Day length 901 677 800 913 788 875 785 560 664 675 546 585

Day length
+

Max day length Min day length
Jan 571 min
9 h 31 min
571,869
599 min
9 h 59 min
(Array.1.)
599,841
551 min
9 h 11 min
(1.1.)
551,889
Feb 637 min
10 h 37 min
637,803
675 min
11 h 15 min
(Array.2.)
675,765
602 min
10 h 2 min
(1.2.)
602,838
Mar 720 min
11 h 60 min
720,720
762 min
12 h 42 min
(Array.3.)
762,678
677 min
11 h 17 min
(1.3.)
677,763
Apr 804 min
13 h 24 min
804,636
842 min
14 h 2 min
(Array.4.)
842,598
765 min
12 h 45 min
(1.4.)
765,675
May 875 min
14 h 35 min
875,565
901 min
15 h 1 min
(Array.5.)
901,539
844 min
14 h 4 min
(1.5.)
844,596
Jun 910 min
15 h 10 min
910,530
913 min
15 h 13 min
(Array.6.)
913,527
902 min
15 h 2 min
(1.6.)
902,538
Jul 890 min
14 h 50 min
890,550
909 min
15 h 9 min
(Array.7.)
909,531
864 min
14 h 24 min
(31.7.)
864,576
Aug 826 min
13 h 46 min
826,614
862 min
14 h 22 min
(Array.8.)
862,578
788 min
13 h 8 min
(31.8.)
788,652
Sep 745 min
12 h 25 min
745,695
785 min
13 h 5 min
(Array.9.)
785,655
704 min
11 h 44 min
(30.9.)
704,736
Oct 661 min
11 h 1 min
661,779
702 min
11 h 42 min
(Array.10.)
702,738
621 min
10 h 21 min
(31.10.)
621,819
Nov 587 min
9 h 47 min
587,853
618 min
10 h 18 min
(Array.11.)
618,822
560 min
9 h 20 min
(30.11.)
560,880
Dec 550 min
9 h 10 min
550,890
559 min
9 h 19 min
(Array.12.)
559,881
546 min
9 h 6 min
(20.12.)
546,894
Year 731 min
12 h 11 min
731,709
913 min
15 h 13 min
(21. 6.)
913,527
546 min
9 h 6 min
(21. 12.)
546,894



Mar, Apr, May

Jun, Jul, Aug

Sep, Oct, Nov

Dec, Jan, Feb
Max Min Average Max Min Average Max Min Average Max Min Average
Day length 901 677 800 913 788 875 785 560 664 675 546 585

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